When volcanoes erupt, they eject carbon dioxide CO2 , water, hydrogen, sulfur dioxide SO2 , hydrogen chloride , hydrogen fluoride , and many other gases. Meronen et al. Their small ratio disguises their significant role in trapping solar insolation and reradiating it back to Earth. The eruption released SO 2 into the stratosphere, causing a global climate anomaly. Different methods have estimated the ejected sulphur mass during the eruption: the petrological method; an optical depth measurement based on anatomical observations; and the polar ice core sulfate concentration method, using cores from Greenland and Antarctica.
The figures vary depending on the method, ranging from 10 to million tonnes. In the spring and summer of , a persistent "dry fog" was observed in the northeastern United States. The fog reddened and dimmed the sunlight, such that sunspots were visible to the naked eye.
Neither wind nor rainfall dispersed the "fog". It was identified as a stratospheric sulfate aerosol veil. Average global temperatures decreased by about 0.
Canada experienced extreme cold during that summer. The second-coldest year in the Northern Hemisphere since around was , and the s are the coldest decade on record. That was the consequence of Tambora's eruption and possibly another VEI-6 eruption in late This climate anomaly has been blamed for the severity of typhus epidemics in southeast Europe and along the eastern Mediterranean Sea between and Cool temperatures and heavy rains resulted in failed harvests in Britain and Ireland.
Families in Wales travelled long distances as refugees, begging for food. Famine was prevalent in north and southwest Ireland, following the failure of wheat, oat, and potato harvests. The crisis was severe in Germany, where food prices rose sharply, and demonstrations in front of grain markets and bakeries, followed by riots, arson, and looting, took place in many European cities.
It was the worst famine of the 19th century. Volcanism affects the atmosphere in two distinct ways: short-term cooling caused by reflected insolation and long-term warming from increased CO 2 levels. Most of the water vapor and CO 2 is collected in clouds within a few weeks to months because both are already present in large quantities, so the effects are limited Bodenmann et al. SO 2 , other aerosols , and particulates cause global cooling, thereby reducing or nullifying the global warming effects of a volcano's greenhouse gas emissions.
For your information, if you are thinking of staying overnight at shelter 5, beware of the wild boars. We saw and heard 3 tents destroyed by them. One more thing, I lost a half of my toe nail because the nearly 35 km walk that I did in one day. If you are interested in booking accommodation for your holiday in Indonesia I recommend Airbnb. For hotel bookings I recommend Agoda for its low price and discounts.
We help travellers just like you arrange their trip. That certainly sounds like quite a journey, but well worth it as well. It looks like there might be a captive market for providing pedicures to climbers after they complete their descent too if your nails are anything to go by. Aah… Firsta! Hi, I will be travelling alone through Indonesia. Mount Tambora [ edit ] Since a couple of days, I have made a revamp of this article.
I have changed the intro as you suggested. I'm going to ask some people to help copyediting the article. Yes, the only trivia is a bit lonely. It was put by someone. At first, s he put it in the main text and I put it later at the end, because I think that it is a non-notable information. Perhaps, I'm going to put it in the footnotes.
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