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Part of the city was moved to nearby Tolgoit. In , the part of the camp that moved to Tolgoit was brought back to its location, and the 7th Bogd Jebtsundamba returned to the Zuun Khuree. The Gandan Monastery flourished as a center of philosophical studies. Following the Treaty of Kyakhta in , Urga Ulaanbaatar was a major point of the Kyakhta trade between Russia and China — mostly Siberian furs for Chinese cloth and later tea.
The route ran south to Urga, southeast across the Gobi Desert to Kalgan, and southeast over the mountains to Peking. Urga was also a collection point for goods coming from further west. These were either sent to China or shipped north to Russia via Kyakhta, because of legal restrictions and the lack of good trade routes to the west. By ,  there was a Russian quarter with a few hundred merchants and a Russian club and informal Russian mayor.
East of the main town was the Russian consulate built in with an Orthodox church, post office and 20 Cossack guards. It was fortified in and briefly occupied by troops during the Boxer Rebellion.
There was a telegraph line north to Kyakhta and southeast to Kalgan and weekly postal service along these routes. Beyond the Russian consulate was the Chinese trading post called Maimaicheng, and nearby the palace of the Manchu viceroy. With the growth of Western trade at the Chinese ports the tea trade to Russia declined, some Chinese merchants left and wool became the main export. Manufactured goods still came from Russia, but most were now brought from Kalgan by caravan.
The annual trade was estimated at 25 million rubles, nine-tenths in Chinese hands and one-tenth in Russian. The Moscow trade expedition of the s estimated the population of Urga at 60,, based on Nikolay Przhevalsky 's study in the s.
The city's population swelled during the Naadam festival and major religious festivals to more than , In , the number of monks had reached 20,, up from 13, in In , the amban Sando went to quell a major fight between Gandan lamas and Chinese traders started by an incident at the Da Yi Yu shop in the Baruun Damnuurchin market district.
He was unable to bring the lamas under control, and was forced to flee back to his quarters. On 29 December , the 8th Jeptsundamba Khutughtu was declared ruler of an independent Mongolia and assumed the title Bogd Khan.
However, in the tripartite Kyakhta agreement of between Russia, China, and Mongolia , Mongolia's status was changed to mere autonomy. The city changed hands twice in Baron Ungern's capture of Urga was followed by clearing out Mongolia's small gangs of demoralized Chinese soldiers and, at the same time, looting and murder of foreigners, including a vicious pogrom that killed off the Jewish community.
Ungern and his men rode out in May to meet Red Russian and Red Mongolian troops, but suffered a disastrous defeat in June. In July , the Communist Soviet-Mongolian army became the second conquering force in six months to enter Urga. Mongolia came to the control of the Soviet Russia.
On 29 October , the town was renamed Ulaanbaatar Mongolian "red hero" , by the advice of T. Ryskulov, the Soviet representative in Mongolia. During the socialist period, especially following the Second World War , most of the old ger districts were replaced by Soviet-style blocks of flats , often financed by the Soviet Union. Urban planning began in the s, and most of the city today is the result of construction between and The Transmongolian Railway , connecting Ulaanbaatar with Moscow and Beijing, was completed in and cinemas, theaters, museums etc.
The Gandan monastery was reopened in when the U. Vice President Henry Wallace asked to see a monastery during his visit to Mongolia. Ulaanbaatar was the site of demonstrations that led to Mongolia's transition to democracy and market economy in On 10 December , protesters outside the Youth Culture Centre called for Mongolia to implement perestroika and glasnost in their full sense.
Dissident leaders demanded free elections and economic reform. On 14 January , the protesters, having grown from two hundred to over a thousand, met at the Lenin Museum in Ulaanbaatar. Afterwards, weekend demonstrations in January and February were held accompanied by the forming of Mongolia's first opposition parties. Thousands of supporters joined them. More arrived the following day and the crowd grew more unruly.
The provisional government announced Mongolia's first free elections, which were held in July. The MPRP won the election and resumed power. Since Mongolia's transition to a market economy in , the city has experienced further growth—especially in the ger districts, as construction of new blocks of flats had basically slowed to a halt in the s.
The population has more than doubled to over one million inhabitants. This causes a number of social, environmental, and transportation problems. In recent years, construction of new buildings has gained new momentum, especially in the city center, and apartment prices have skyrocketed. In , Ulaanbaatar was the scene of riots after the Mongolian Democratic , Civic Will Party and Republican parties disputed the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party 's victory in the parliamentary elections.
A four-day state of emergency was declared, the capital was placed under a to curfew, and alcohol sales banned;  following these measures, rioting did not resume. It forms the boundary between the steppe zone to the south and the forest-steppe zone to the north.
It is also one of the oldest reserves in the world, being protected by law since the 18th century. The forests of the mountains surrounding Ulaanbaatar are composed of evergreen pines, deciduous larches and birches , while the riverine forest of the Tuul River is composed of broad-leaved, deciduous poplars , elms and willows. It lies on roughly the same longitude as Chongqing , Hanoi and Jakarta.
The city features brief, warm summers and long, bitterly cold and dry winters. Most of the annual precipitation of millimetres The highest recorded precipitation in the city was millimetres or Nuuk has a tundra climate with consistent cold temperatures throughout the year.
Ulaanbaatar's annual average is brought down by its cold winter temperatures whereas it is significantly warm from late April to early October. The city lies in the zone of discontinuous permafrost , which means that building is difficult in sheltered aspects that preclude thawing in the summer, but easier on more exposed ones where soils fully thaw.
Suburban residents live in traditional yurts that do not protrude into the soil. Each district is subdivided into khoroos , of which there are The capital is governed by a Citizens' Representatives Khural of the Capital city city council with 45 members, elected every four years.
The Prime Minister of Mongolia appoints the Governor of the Capital city and Mayor of Ulaanbaatar with four year terms upon city council's nomination. The city consists of a central district built in Soviet s- and s-style architecture, surrounded by and mingled with residential concrete towerblocks and large ger districts.
The largest corporations and conglomerates of Mongolia are almost all headquartered in Ulaanbaatar. In Ulaanbaatar had 5 billionaires and 90 multimillionaires with net worth above 10 million dollars. While not on the level of multinational corporations, most of these companies are multi-sector conglomerates with far-reaching influence in the country. Ulaanbaatar Urga has been a key location where the economic history and wealth creation of the nation has played out.
Unlike the highly mobile lifestyle of herders nomadizing between winter and summer pastures Urga was set up to be a semi-permanent residence of the high lama Zanabazar. It stood in one location Khoshoo Tsaidam for an unusually long period of 15 years from to before Zanabazar moved it east to the foot of Mount Saridag in the Khentii Mountains. Here he set about building a permanent monastery town with stone buildings.
Urga stayed at Mount Saridag for a full 35 years and was indeed assumed to be permanent there when Oirats suddenly invaded the region in and burnt down the city. With a major part of his life's work destroyed Zanabazar had to take the mobile portion of Urga and flee to Inner Mongolia. More than half the wealth created in Urga in the period from to is thought to have been lost in Only in did Urga return to the region and start a second period of expansion, but it had to remain mobile until the end of the year long Dzungar-Qing Wars in After settling down in its current location in Urga saw sustained economic growth but most of the wealth went to the Buddhist clergy, nobles as well as the temporary Shanxi merchants based in the eastern and western China-towns of Urga.
During the Mongolian People's Republic private property was only marginally tolerated while most assets were state-owned. The oldest companies still operating in Ulaanbaatar date to the early MPR.
Only Gandantegchinlen Monastery has been operating nonstop for years with a 6 year gap during World War II but whether it can be seen as a business is still debated.
As the main industrial center of Mongolia , Ulaanbaatar produces a variety of consumer goods  and is responsible for about two-thirds of Mongolia's total gross domestic product GDP.
North of the city are several gold mines, including the Boroo Gold Mine , and foreign investment in the sector has allowed for growth and development. However, in light of a noticeable drop in GDP during the financial crisis of , as demand for mining exports dropped,  there has been movement towards diversifying the economy.
The city also houses numerous museums, two of the prominent ones being the National Museum of Mongolia and the Zanabazar Fine Arts Museum. Saturday 21 March Sunday 22 March Monday 23 March Tuesday 24 March Wednesday 25 March Thursday 26 March Friday 27 March Saturday 28 March Monday 30 March Tuesday 31 March Wednesday 1 April Thursday 2 April Friday 3 April Saturday 4 April Sunday 5 April Monday 6 April Tuesday 7 April Wednesday 8 April Thursday 9 April Friday 10 April Saturday 11 April Sunday 12 April Monday 13 April Tuesday 14 April Wednesday 15 April Friday 17 April Saturday 18 April Sunday 19 April Monday 20 April Tuesday 21 April Wednesday 22 April Thursday 23 April Friday 24 April Saturday 25 April Sunday 26 April Monday 27 April Tuesday 28 April Wednesday 29 April Thursday 30 April Friday 1 May Saturday 2 May Sunday 3 May Monday 4 May Tuesday 5 May Wednesday 6 May Thursday 7 May Friday 8 May Saturday 9 May Sunday 10 May Monday 11 May Tuesday 12 May Wednesday 13 May Thursday 14 MayListen to Tohu-bohu by Ulan Bator on Deezer. With music streaming on Deezer you can discover more than 56 million tracks, create your own playlists, and share your favourite tracks with your friends.