Click to find out. Next chapter in the Swedish House Mafia saga. Chart Reigns Though muscle activity frequencies overlap with the gamma band sampled in the present study, we observed muscle activity contamination across electrode sites very infrequently during our mental tasks see Procedures section on how these portions of data were removed.
Thus, we view muscle activity explanations of our data to be unlikely. However, for a number of reasons, the data do not stand alone as indicating the specific effectiveness of this treatment. First, we did not assess maturation effects in a group of GAD patients not undergoing psychotherapy or undergoing a more benign treatment. Second, we did not assess the control participants at multiple time points. The patients thus may have naturally experienced some decline in the measures which differentiated the groups at pre-treatment.
The post-treatment data in the present study offer converging evidence that EEG gamma activity reflects important indicators of negative affect in GAD patients during worry by the fact that gamma is sensitive to fluctuations in these experiences. It is expected that changes such as this would follow from successful treatment.
However, the causal link between these changes and the treatment must be further established. The changes from pre- to post-therapy in the region of the T6 electrode see Figure 2 were unexpected especially in light of there being no group difference at this site at the pre-treatment assessment. It may be the case that GAD patients have learned to dampen emotional experiences during worry in a global way, as suggested by the bilateral changes in posterior parietal gamma.
Future research evaluating changes in the experience of worry and evaluating ways in which GAD patients have learned to cope with the emotional repercussions of worry might suggest an explanation for these findings. Since worry induction was the only emotional task assessed in the present study, it is unclear whether similar group and treatment differences might have also been found using other emotion inducing manipulations e.
Future research with a wider variety of tasks will be useful to highlight the specificity of the present findings to the worry experience. These results support continued research to link findings in affective neuroscience, psychopathology, therapy outcome monitoring and studies of emotional processing.
The worry induction and its successful impact on subjective emotional reports differentiated anxious from non-psychiatric participants as well as characterized the pre- to post-treatment differences in our anxious participants. Consistent with the directional influence of worry on negative emotion, path analysis supports a stronger influence of worry on anxious feelings rather than the reverse direction Gana et al. The findings support the importance of physiological data, and especially EEG gamma power, for studying affective symptoms in psychiatric patients and also to monitor fluctuations in affective symptoms expected to follow successful treatment.
Analyses relating physiological measures to prototypical assessor and self-report symptom measures of anxiety and depression are planned for the future. The authors wish to thank Jack Nitschke and Andreas Keil for helpful comments as well as Alison Staples for editing assistance.
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The study protocol, screening questionnaires and consent form were approved by the local ethics committee and conformed to the Declaration of Helsinki. Compliance was checked by sleep logs and ambulatory activity measurements wrist activity monitor, Cambridge Neurotechnology Ltd, UK. The timing of the sleep-wake schedule during the protocol was adjusted to individual habitual bedtimes. For each participant, habitual bedtime was calculated by centering the approximately 8-h sleep episodes during the baseline week at their midpoint.
Baseline and recovery nights were scheduled at individual habitual bedtimes. Polysomnographic recordings and constant posture started in the afternoon after the first baseline night. Older participants received a daily low-dose subcutaneous heparin injection Fragmin, 0. Overview of the 4-day inpatient part of the study protocol.
The hatched bars indicate controlled posture semi-recumbent during wakefulness and supine during sleep. Twelve EEGs channels, 2 electroculograms, a submental electromyogram, and an electrocardiogram were recorded. After online digitization by using a 12 bit AD converter 0. Sleep stages were visually scored per s epochs Vitaport Paperless Sleep Scoring Software according to standard criteria.
Dreams from NREM and REM naps were expressed as dream recall, number of dreams, and dream characteristics on a point-scale of the Sleep Mentation Questionnaire ranging from 0 less to 3 more , at each given nap see methods section on dream recall. Sleep stages were visually scored per s epochs. NREM sleep i.
Subjective sleepiness was assessed by the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale KSS on a point scale ranging from 1 very alert to 9 very sleepy every 30 min during scheduled wakefulness. Saliva collections were scheduled during wakefulness at the same time intervals every 30 min.
A direct double-antibody radioimmunoassay was utilized for the melatonin assay by gas chromatography—mass spectroscopy with an analytical least detectable dose of 0. The mean melatonin concentration was calculated for each subject. A nap was classified as a night nap biological night if the melatonin concentration of the last saliva sample prior to the nap was above the individual mean; otherwise, it was classified as a day nap biological day.
Dream recall was assessed immediately at the end of each nap trial 10 naps in total with the Sleep Mentation Questionnaire, which addresses main characteristics of dream recall, such as number of dreams, emotionality, vividness, pleasantness, hostility, and colourfulness. Questions were not asked about detailed dream content, as this could have influenced dream reports at successive nap trials.
The dream recall questionnaire comprised the following questions:. When the reply to Q1 and Q2 was 4 and 0, respectively, Q were not asked. Otherwise, Q2 was followed by Q Hence, participants were considered to have had dream recall if their response to Q1 and Q2 was not , respectively, 4 and 0. How vivid was the dream? For analysis of the dream variables, the point scale from 1 more to 4 less of this dream questionnaire was inverted from 0 less to 3 more for statistical comparisons.
Afterwards, for the analysis of dream characteristics, an emotional composite score was built with the following 5 items: emotionality, vividness, pleasantness, hostility, and colourfulness. Since dream characteristics rely on number of dreams, the emotional composite score was adjusted to the individual mean values of number of dreams.
Visually scored sleep stages per nap sequence and the dream characteristics after naps and baseline sleep episode were tested with a Mann—Whitney U test for the age group comparisons, since the data did not reach the criterion for a parametric distribution. For the comparison of recall, number, and the emotional composite score of dreams across naps with baseline values in the young cohort and in the older cohort, the Wilcoxon matched pairs test was utilized.
Baseline dream values, conducted immediately after baseline night, encompassed dream recall, number of dreams, and dream emotionality on the sleep mentation questionnaire. No significant age-related differences were observed with respect to dream recall older: 1. Slazenger . The Resistance EP . Rocketman . The Rise . Dirty Dubz From Dubz with Matador .
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The expression of emotions in man and animals. London: John Murray; Responses of redfronted lemurs to experimentally modified alarm calls: evidence for urgency-based changes in call structure. On the vocal expression of emotion. A multi-parametric analysis of different states of aversion in the squirrel monkey.
When empathy fails: Aversive infant crying and child abuse. In: Lester B, Boukydis C, editors. Infant crying. New York: Plenum Press; Vocal play behavior in cotton-top tamarins.
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Adoption and maltreatment of foster infants by rhesus macaque abusive mothers.Jan 08, · Provided to YouTube by Kontor New Media GmbH Emotion (TBM DJ Extended) · DANCEFIRE vs D-JMC Emotion ℗ ARC-Records Austria Released on: Artist: D-J.