In , it became one of the first 25 films that was selected by the U. Library of Congress for preservation in the National Film Registry for being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant". In , its soundtrack was added to the U. National Recording Registry. Today, it is regarded as one of the most important films in the history of motion pictures. The film has been reissued multiple times with Lucas's support—most significantly with its 20th-anniversary theatrical "Special Edition"—incorporating many changes including modified computer-generated effects, altered dialogue, re-edited shots, remixed soundtracks and added scenes.
The film became a "pop-cultural phenomenon" and launched an industry of tie-in products, including novels , comics , video games , amusement park attractions , and merchandise including toys, games, clothing and many other spin-off works. The film's success led to two critically and commercially successful sequels, The Empire Strikes Back and Return of the Jedi , and later to a prequel trilogy , a sequel trilogy , two anthology films and various spin-off TV series.
The galaxy is in a period of civil war. Rebel spies have stolen plans to the Galactic Empire 's Death Star , a moon-sized space station capable of destroying an entire planet. Princess Leia , secretly one of the Rebellion's leaders, has obtained its schematics, but her starship is intercepted by an Imperial Star Destroyer under the command of the ruthless Sith Lord Darth Vader , an agent to the Empire. Before she is captured, Leia hides the plans in the memory of astromech droid R2-D2 , who, along with protocol droid C-3PO , flees in an escape pod to the desert planet Tatooine.
The droids are captured by Jawa traders, who sell them to moisture farmers Owen and Beru Lars and their nephew Luke Skywalker. While cleaning R2-D2 , Luke accidentally triggers part of a holographic recording of Leia, in which she requests help from Obi-Wan Kenobi.
He asks his uncle if he knows anything, but his uncle curtly drops the subject. Ben, who reveals his true name to be Obi-Wan, tells Luke of his days as a Jedi Knight , former peacekeepers of the Galactic Republic who derived their power from an energy field called the Force until they were wiped out by the Galactic Empire.
Contrary to what his uncle has told him, Luke learns that his father fought alongside Obi-Wan as a Jedi Knight until Vader, a former pupil of Obi-Wan's, turned to the dark side of the Force and murdered him.
Obi-Wan presents Luke with his father's old weapon, a lightsaber. R2-D2 plays Leia's message for Obi-Wan, in which she begs him to take the Death Star plans to her home planet of Alderaan and give them to her father for analysis.
Obi-Wan invites Luke to accompany him to Alderaan and learn the ways of the Force, but Luke declines, saying his aunt and uncle need him.
Returning home, however, he finds Imperial stormtroopers have killed his aunt and uncle and destroyed their farm in their search for the droids, leaving Luke no choice but to accept Obi-Wan's invitation. They travel to a cantina in Mos Eisley , where they hire smuggler Han Solo to transport them. Han is intercepted by Greedo , a bounty hunter working for local mobster Jabba the Hutt , to whom Han owes money; the confrontation ends with Han killing Greedo.
Luke discovers that Leia is imprisoned on the Death Star and scheduled to be executed, and rescues her with the help of Han and Chewbacca in a swashbuckling series of escapes. His task accomplished, Obi-Wan sees that the others need a distraction to board the Falcon , and sacrifices himself in a lightsaber duel with Darth Vader. They depart the hangar but are caught up by four Imperial TIE starfighters which they fight off.
Using a tracking beacon placed on the Falcon , the Imperials follow the rebels to the hidden base on Yavin 4. Leia's schematics show that the Death Star might be destroyed by firing torpedoes into a two-meter-wide thermal exhaust port that directly leads into its reactor, triggering a chain reaction. Han collects a reward for his role in Leia's rescue, intending to leave and repay Jabba.
Luke joins the Rebel squadron in a desperate attack against the approaching Death Star. In the ensuing battle, the Rebels suffer heavy losses in several unsuccessful runs. Vader leads a squadron of TIE fighters and prepares to attack Luke's X-wing , but Han returns and attacks the Imperial fighters, sending Vader spiraling into space. Guided by Obi-Wan's spirit , Luke turns off his targeting computer and uses the Force to guide the torpedoes into the exhaust port. The Death Star explodes just before it can fire on the Rebel base, killing Tarkin and the Imperial troops onboard.
In a triumphant ceremony at the base, Leia awards Luke and Han medals for their heroism. I sat down on one of the sofas, waiting for George.
Door opened, and George walked in with Gary behind him. So, naturally, what did I do? I'm raised in England. Soon as someone comes in through the door, I stand up. George goes "Hmm [looked up]". Virtually turned to Gary, and said "I think we've found him". Michael Leader plays a minor role as a Stormtrooper known for accidentally hitting his helmet against a door.
Lucas had the idea for a space-fantasy film in , after he completed directing his first full-length feature, THX ;  however, he has said that he had the idea long before then. I especially loved the Flash Gordon serials Of course I realize now how crude and badly done they were I wanted to make a Flash Gordon movie, with all the trimmings, but I couldn't obtain the rights to the characters.
So I began researching and went right back and found where Alex Raymond who had done the original Flash Gordon comic strips in newspapers had got his idea from.
I discovered that he'd got his inspiration from the works of Edgar Rice Burroughs author of Tarzan and especially from his John Carter of Mars series books. I read through that series, then found that what had sparked Burroughs off was a science-fantasy called Gulliver on Mars , written by Edwin Arnold and published in That was the first story in this genre that I have been able to trace. Jules Verne had got pretty close, I suppose, but he never had a hero battling against space creatures or having adventures on another planet.
A whole new genre developed from that idea. Director Francis Ford Coppola , who accompanied Lucas in trying to buy the Flash Gordon rights, recounted in "[George] was very depressed because he had just come back and they wouldn't sell him Flash Gordon. And he says, 'Well, I'll just invent my own.
Lucas began writing in January , "eight hours a day, five days a week",  by taking small notes, inventing odd names and assigning them possible characterizations. Lucas would discard many of these by the time the final script was written, but he included several names and places in the final script or its sequels.
He used these initial names and ideas to compile a two-page synopsis titled Journal of the Whills , which told the tale of the training of apprentice CJ Thorpe as a " Jedi -Bendu" space commando by the legendary Mace Windy. After United Artists declined to budget the film, Lucas and producer Gary Kurtz presented the film treatment to Universal Pictures , the studio that financed American Graffiti ; however, it rejected its options for the film because the concept was "a little strange", and it said that Lucas should follow American Graffiti with more consequential themes.
Lucas said, "I've always been an outsider to Hollywood types. They think I do weirdo films. We had Westerns, pirate movies, all kinds of great things. Where are the romance, the adventure, and the fun that used to be in practically every movie made? There were also concerns regarding the project's potentially high budget. Lucas and Kurtz, in pitching the film, said that it would be "low-budget, Roger Corman style, and the budget was never going to be more than—well, originally we had proposed about 8 million, it ended up being about Both of those figures are very low budget by Hollywood standards at the time.
Although Ladd did not grasp the technical side of the project, he believed that Lucas was talented. Lucas later stated that Ladd "invested in me, he did not invest in the movie. For Lucas, this deal protected Star Wars ' s unwritten segments and most of the merchandising profits. Since commencing his writing process in January , Lucas had done "various rewrites in the evenings after the day's work. It's always been what you might call a good idea in search of a story.
He changed Starkiller to an adolescent boy, and he shifted the general into a supporting role as a member of a family of dwarfs.
He based Chewbacca on his Alaskan Malamute dog, Indiana whom he would later use as namesake for his character Indiana Jones , who often acted as the director's "co-pilot" by sitting in the passenger seat of his car. Lucas began researching the science-fiction genre by watching films and reading books and comics.
However, in this draft, the father is a hero who is still alive at the start of the film. Annikin became Luke's father, a wise Jedi knight. For example, Luke had several brothers, as well as his father, who appears in a minor role at the end of the film.
This version ended with another text crawl, previewing the next story in the series. This draft was also the first to introduce the concept of a Jedi turning to the dark side: the draft included a historical Jedi who was the first to ever fall to the dark side, and then trained the Sith to use it. Lucas hired conceptual artist Ralph McQuarrie to create paintings of certain scenes, several of which Lucas included with his screenplay when he delivered it to 20th Century-Fox.
This third draft had most of the elements of the final plot, with only some differences in the characters and settings. The draft characterized Luke as an only child, with his father already dead, replacing him with a substitute named Ben Kenobi. Lucas worked with his friends Gloria Katz and Willard Huyck to revise the fourth draft into the final pre-production script.
Lucas finished writing his script in March , when the crew started filming. He said, "What finally emerged through the many drafts of the script has obviously been influenced by science-fiction and action-adventure I've read and seen. And I've seen a lot of it. I'm trying to make a classic sort of genre picture, a classic space fantasy in which all the influences are working together.
There are certain traditional aspects of the genre I wanted to keep and help perpetuate in Star Wars. For the film's opening crawl , Lucas originally wrote a composition consisting of six paragraphs with four sentences each. It's like a poem. It goes on forever. It's gibberish. Let me sit down and write this for you. George Lucas recruited many conceptual designers, including Colin Cantwell, who worked on A Space Odyssey , to conceptualize the initial spacecraft models; Alex Tavoularis to create the preliminary conceptual storyboard sketches of early scripts; and Ralph McQuarrie to visualize the characters, costumes, props and scenery.
After McQuarrie's drawings for Lucas's colleagues Hal Barwood and Matthew Robbins who were collaborating for a film caught his interest, Lucas met with McQuarrie to discuss his plans for the untitled space fantasy film he wanted to make. Two years later, after completing American Graffiti , Lucas approached McQuarrie and asked him if he would be interested "in doing something for Star Wars. The film was ambitious as Lucas wanted to create fresh prop prototypes and sets based on McQuarrie's paintings that had never been realized before in science fiction films.
He commissioned production designers John Barry and Roger Christian , who were working on the sets of the film Lucky Lady when Lucas first approached them, to work on the production sets. Christian recounted in "George came to the set I was doing, it was an old salt factory design and he helped me shovel salt, just like two students in plaid shirts and sneakers.
And we spoke and he looked at the set and couldn't believe it wasn't real. Christian said that Lucas "didn't want anything [in Star Wars ] to stand out, he wanted it [to look] all real and used. And I said, 'Finally somebody's doing it the right way. Lucas described a "used future" concept to the production designers in which all devices, ships, and buildings looked aged and dirty.
Barry said that the director "wants to make it look like it's shot on location on your average everyday Death Star or Mos Eisley Spaceport or local cantina. Nothing was new. George was going right against that. The designers started working with the director before Star Wars was approved by 20th Century-Fox.
As they could not afford to dress the sets, Christian was forced to use unconventional methods and materials to achieve the desired look. He suggested that Lucas use scrap in making the dressings, and the director agreed. I used to do it with models when I was a kid. I'd stick things on them and we'd make things look old. According to Christian, the Millennium Falcon set was the most difficult to build. Christian wanted the interior of the Falcon to look like that of a submarine.
The garbage compactor set "was also pretty hard, because I knew I had actors in there and the walls had to come in, and they had to be in dirty water and I had to get stuff that would be light enough so it wouldn't hurt them but also not bobbing around.
The massive rebel hangar set was housed at a second sound stage at Shepperton Studios ; the stage was the largest in Europe at the time. Most of the visual effects used pioneering digital motion control photography developed by John Dykstra and his team, which created the illusion of size by employing small models and slowly moving cameras. George Lucas tried "to get a cohesive reality" for his feature. However, since the film is a fairy tale , as he had described, "I still wanted it to have an ethereal quality, yet be well composed and, also, have an alien look.
To achieve this, he hired the British cinematographer Gilbert Taylor. However, he eventually withdrew to work on the Vincente Minnelli -directed A Matter of Time instead, which "really annoy[ed]" Kurtz.
Strangelove and A Hard Day's Night both On his decision, Lucas said: "I thought they were good, eccentrically photographed pictures with a strong documentary flavor.
Taylor said that Lucas, who was consumed by the details of the complicated production, "avoided all meetings and contact with me from day one, so I read the extra-long script many times and made my own decisions as to how I would shoot the picture.
During production, Lucas and Taylor—whom Kurtz called "old-school" and "crotchety"  —had disputes over filming. His lighting suggestions were rejected by Taylor, who believed that Lucas was overstepping his boundaries by giving specific instructions, sometimes even moving lights and cameras himself.
Taylor refused to use the soft-focus lenses and gauze Lucas wanted after Fox executives complained about the look. Originally, Lucas envisioned the planet of Tatooine , where much of the film would take place, as a jungle planet.
Gary Kurtz traveled to the Philippines to scout locations; however, because of the idea of spending months filming in the jungle would make Lucas "itchy", the director refined his vision and made Tatooine a desert planet instead.
When principal photography began on March 22, , in the Tunisian desert for the scenes on Tatooine, the project faced several problems. Taylor said, "you couldn't really see where the land ended and the sky began. It was all a gray mess, and the robots were just a blur.
But George saw it differently, so we tried using nets and other diffusion. He asked to set up one shot on the robots with a mm, and the sand and sky just mushed together. I told him it wouldn't work, but he said that was the way he wanted to do the entire film, all diffused.
Filming began in Chott el Djerid , while a construction crew in Tozeur took eight weeks to transform the desert into the desired setting. Kenny Baker , who portrayed R2-D2, said: "I was incredibly grateful each time an [R2] would actually work right. Lucas chose Hotel Sidi Driss, which is larger than the typical underground dwellings, to shoot the interior of Luke's homestead.
After two and a half weeks of filming in Tunisia,  production moved to Elstree Studios , near London. It was also the only studio of its kind in Britain or America that could cater for nine large stages at the same time and allow the company complete freedom to use its own personnel. Most of the crew considered the project a "children's film", rarely took their work seriously, and often found it unintentionally humorous.
Harrison Ford found it strange that "there's a princess with weird buns in her hair", and called Chewbacca a "giant in a monkey suit. This would result in "a 'cut-out' system of panel lighting", with quartz lamps that could be placed in the holes in the walls, ceiling and floors. His idea was supported by the Fox studio, which agreed that "we couldn't have this ' black hole of Calcutta. Lucas commissioned computer programmer Larry Cuba to create the animated Death Star plans shown at the rebel base on Yavin 4.
This was written with the GRASS programming language , exported to a Vector General monitor and filmed on 35 mm to be rear-projected on the set. It is the only computer animation in the original version of the film. Lucas selected the location as a potential filming site after seeing a poster of it hanging at a travel agency while he was filming in Britain. This inspired him to send a film crew to Guatemala in March to shoot scenes.
While filming in Tikal, the crew paid locals with a six pack of beer to watch over the camera equipment for several days. While shooting, Lucas rarely spoke to the actors, who believed that he expected too much of them while providing little direction.
His directions to the actors usually consisted of the words "faster" and "more intense". A lot of actors don't mind—they don't care, they just get on with it.
But some actors really need a lot of pampering and a lot of feedback, and if they don't get it, they get paranoid that they might not be doing a good job. Ladd offered Lucas some of the only support from the studio; he dealt with scrutiny from board members over the rising budget and complex screenplay drafts. Kurtz said that "it came out to be like 9. Under the new system, the project met the studio's deadline.
During production, the cast attempted to make Lucas laugh or smile, as he often appeared depressed. At one point, the project became so demanding that Lucas was diagnosed with hypertension and exhaustion and was warned to reduce his stress level. Moreover, Mark Hamill 's car accident left his face visibly scarred, which restricted re-shoots. Star Wars was originally slated for release on Christmas ; however, its production delays pushed the film's release to mid When Lucas watched Jympson's rough cut for the first time, he disliked what he saw.
Rinzler wrote that "Jympson's selection of takes was questionable, and he seemed to be having trouble doing match-cuts. He commented: "Unfortunately it didn't work out.
It's very hard when you are hiring people to know if they are going to mesh with you and if you are going to get what you want. In the end, I don't think he fully understood the movie and what I was trying to do. I shoot in a very peculiar way, in a documentary style, and it takes a lot of hard editing to make it work.
Richard Chew considered the film to have been cut in a slow, by-the-book manner: scenes were played out in master shots that flowed into close-up coverage. He found that the pace was dictated by the actors instead of the cuts. Hirsch and Chew worked on two reels simultaneously. Jympson's original assembly contained a large amount of footage which differed from the final cut of the film, including several alternate takes and a number of scenes which were subsequently deleted to improve the narrative pace.
The most significant material cut was a series of scenes from the first part of the film which introduced Luke Skywalker. These early scenes, set in Anchorhead on the planet Tatooine, presented the audience with Luke's everyday life among his friends as it is affected by the space battle above the planet; they also introduced the character of Biggs Darklighter , Luke's closest friend who departs to join the rebellion. There were too many story lines to keep straight: the robots and the Princess, Vader, Luke.
So we simplified it by taking out Luke and Biggs. As a result, the film was more "leisurely paced". However, we have learned a lot from your feedback and usage of both features, and plan to bring them back in improved and stable forms in the not too distant future. Thank you for your feedback and enthusiasm for the year Discogs project: the best music database and marketplace in the world.
If you entered thinking that the year would bring a totally different sound befitting the turn of a new millennium Not that the artists that defined popular music at the end of the '90s were suddenly spirited away and replaced with an entirely new vanguard: Most of the biggest artists of -- the boy bands and girl groups, the breakout rappers and rock best-sellers -- were the biggest artists of , too.
But they seemed energized by the changeover of millennia, and motivated to push things appropriately forward. Having some of the era's greatest super-producers on the front lines certainly helped. The Neptunes and Swizz Beatz brought the proverbial and sometimes literal bells and whistles to hip-hop, setting it on its path to top 40 domination and definition. But the year wasn't just about returning '90s stars getting 2. Hip-hop's geographical axis was thrown off by a brand new rap icon emerging from the country's center.
And a couple '80s stars returned with dramatically overhauled sounds that demonstrated they would be staying relevant well into their third decades. We're starting today with a list of our favorite songs from the historically rich year, and will continue all week with a series of essays, interviews, lists and other flashbacks to the beginning of the new millennium. So apologies to "Ms.
Read our list below, find a Spotify playlist of all songs at the bottom, and check back to Billboard. It's been a long time since they left you -- so begin the journey back with us below, with dope jams to step to. By the end of the '90s, music for video games and music for sporting events had starting overlapping to the point of being interchangeable -- so it made sense that one of the ultimate mind-numbing dance anthems at the turn of the millennium should be a remix of a video game theme with a soccer chant stapled on top of it.
Call it "Seven-Bit Nation Army," with fewer distracting verses. Long before we knew her as the acrobatic performance-loving pop star, P! O-Town, "Liquid Dreams" No. Love Hewitt? In a year when rock leaned into "nu" strains by bands like Limp Bizkit and Linkin Park, The White Stripes sounded refreshingly, well, old.
Mandy Moore was only 16 when she released the single that would become her biggest Hot hit, and in many ways it sounds like it: a wispy ballad of teenage longing, not all that far removed from Jessica Simpson's contemporaneous "I Wanna Love You Forever.
Black Rob, "Whoa! Though The Notorious B. Hanson, "This Time Around" No. Co-writers Brian Kierulf and Joshua M. Sarah McLachlan, "Silence" No. Hoku, "Another Dumb Blonde" No. Urgent heartfelt lyrics about true love. At a time when romantic love has increasingly become supplanted by records focusing solely on sex, people still desire songs that go all the way -- to lifelong commitment. Beenie Man feat. Mya, "Girls Dem Sugar" No.
And who better to help execute than The Neptunes? Carlos Vives, "Fruta Fresca" No. Limp Bizkit, "Break Stuff" No. Make sure your selection starts and ends within the same node. All News Daily Roundup.
Album Reviews Song Reviews. Song Lyrics. Review: RIFF-it. RIFF-it good. Listen while you read! Add Comment. Aquele Abraco 2. Bananeira 3. Light My Fire 5.
Electronic Folk International. Jazz Latin New Age. Aggressive Bittersweet Druggy. Energetic Happy Hypnotic. Romantic Sad Sentimental.THOMAS THE TANK ENGINE ft. DONALD TRUMP (remix) ADHD. asimo, badcc, KreekCraft - You're WeLcome.